CTI Blog

CTI Blog - What do you need to know about Formaldehyde?

This guest blog is by Ian Rochester, Technical Manager at the Wood Panel industries Federation. It originally appeared on the BWF Blog.

 

Every now and then we get asked about ‘Formaldehyde’ and mostly it’s in relation to compliance with a specific requirement or from a concerned user or specifier in relation to health impacts. In this piece I will try to explain what the current state of knowledge is and what the future is likely to be.

Formaldehyde is a naturally occurring colourless chemical composed of Hydrogen, Oxygen and Carbon.  Formaldehyde is quickly broken down by sunlight and bacteria in soil and it does not accumulate in the environment. As well as occurring naturally in the environment and being essential to life, formaldehyde is also synthesised for use in manufacturing.  It is a compound that provides functionality for the manufacture of plastics and polymers. One of its most common applications is as an intermediate component of some adhesive resins/binders and in this regard its use in the manufacture of wood-based panels has been widespread.  

 

Understanding the impacts

As an intermediate compound, most of the formaldehyde used in binders is converted to other stable compounds by chemical reactions, but there can be some residual ‘free formaldehyde’ that can be emitted. It is the concentration of free formaldehyde released from products that has given rise to safety concerns over the past three decades. Over this period however research, product innovation and regulation have all helped to enhance understanding about impacts and also control. Importantly it is known that, formaldehyde has a threshold concentration below which no harm will occur. In both the workplace and in products, formaldehyde exposure can be controlled to well below those safe levels. 

There is a lot of information out there on formaldehyde - some scientific and some is no more than opinion (and some which is completely erroneous) - which makes it difficult to form an opinion on at a glance. The World Health Organization (WHO) have made assessments (and reassessed in 2010) to provide guidance on a safe indoor air concentration for the general population and, as I write, formaldehyde is currently going through the most thorough assessment ever undertaken as part of the REACH regulation (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation & Restriction of Chemicals). The substance evaluation process assesses all the relevant scientific information available from across the world and draws conclusions on how to manage the risks which in the case of formaldehyde will be occupational and consumer exposure limits.

From an occupational health and safety point of view, the European Commission’s Scientific Committee on Occupational Exposure Limits (SCOEL) has recommended an OEL of  0.6ppm STEL and 0.3ppm 8hr TWA*. If as expected this becomes a binding limit, then even in spite of BREXIT, it is highly probable that the current UK OEL of 2ppm will be amended.

 

Product emissions and indoor air quality

In terms of product emissions and indoor air, in Europe there are currently two formaldehyde classes for wood-based panels, namely E1 and E2.  E1 is 0.124 mg/m3 (0.1 ppm) concentration in a test chamber and E2 is an open ended class for any product higher than E1. The WHO recommended safe concentration limit in indoor air is 0.1 mg/m3 (rounded down from 0.12mg/m3) and recent studies have shown that buildings, including low energy new builds, have formaldehyde levels lower than half the WHO recommended limit. Let’s not forget, the WHO limit has a factor of safety of 5 included from where sensory irritation occurs therefore making sure it’s safe.

There is concern that the E2 class could result in an indoor air concentration higher than the WHO limit because E2 has no upper limit, this is why WPIF members and European Panel Federation member manufacturers do not produce E2 boards and haven’t done so since 2007 and many stopped making it before that. The European Commission has resisted the European wood-based panel industry’s call to remove the E2 class but until eventually removed, industry bodies should continue to insist that E2 products are not specified.

EN Standards and regulations have set the tone across Europe but elsewhere there are requirements that may vary from those in Europe that have to be met if exporting to those countries or particular certification schemes. Notably laws like CARB in California (soon to be US Federal Law), or specific scheme’s requirements like the Blue Angel, BREEAM, LEED etc… most of which approach the subject in slightly different ways. 

The modernised manufacturing techniques used by manufacturers across Europe along with advances in resin development have transformed the way panels are produced such that our members can supply products that meet such demands, from zero added formaldehyde products to ultra-low emitting products that meet both the technical needs in terms of strength characteristics and that of very low formaldehyde emissions.

 

*ppm = Parts Per Million
STEL = Short Term Exposure Limit
TWA = Time Weighted Average

 

[News URL: http://www.cti-timber.org/content/cti-blog-what-do-you-need-know-about-formaldehyde]

CTI Blog - Offsite: If it's not a System, then It's not a Solution

This guest blog post is by Gerard McCaughey, CEO of Entekra Inc

 

In Europe wood frame construction market adoption varies widely from virtually 100% in Scandinavia to 70% in Scotland and about 30% in Ireland and many other central and western European countries. However, what is common in all the countries, where wood frame is used, is that virtually all of it is constructed using an off site construction (OSC) system.

Most of the customers in Europe, whether they are builder/developers or custom home end users, understand the benefits that off site systems (OSC) can deliver in terms of speed, efficiency, quality, energy efficiency and sustainability. It would virtually be as alien to a European to stick build a wood frame house, as it would be to buy a new car and have every single component shipped to your front yard and have a couple of local mechanics come out in a pick up truck with welding equipment and pneumatic tools to build the car. You simply wouldn't dream of it.

Why ignore that 100 years of innovation and progress

Yet in the US market this is exactly how wood framed houses are built, without taking advantage of the last century of innovation and ignoring the benefits of computers, modern automation or factory controlled conditions and quality systems. The real question is Why?

Really the question is better phrased as why have off site solutions not been more widely adopted by the US construction industry?

Off Site System providers not component manufacturers

A large part of the reason is due to the nature of the "off site" industry in the US. In Europe and other parts of the world, the off site companies are part of a dedicated off site industry and categorically see themselves as offsite system providers and not as component manufacturers. In fact the term component is hardly ever used by the off site industry outside the US as the off site companies realize that the customer is not interested in purchasing components but rather is seeking a solution. The so called components are merely an output and form elements of a system which is a solution to the problem the builder wants addressed. They are not the raison d'être of the off site company.

Off Site benefits come from an integrated approach

Until there are dedicated Fully Integrated Off Site System providers it will be very difficult for the builder/developer to gain meaningful benefits and for off site solutions to gain a bigger share of the framing market. One of the major obstacles to this is the requirement for an experienced in house engineering team, as off site solutions will always be compromised if they are forced to use engineering that was designed for stick framing.

In particular, design, engineering and manufacturing of Pre Fabricated Floor Cassettes (PFC) requires a lot of internal engineering expertise. PFC's are are a critical element of off site construction in the multi-story , multi-family and light commercial markets. Engineering for maximum off site efficiency requires a detailed in depth knowledge of factory manufacturing techniques, structural engineering and the off site building process and connection detailing including sequencing and materials selection.

Until those in the industry with a genuine interest and vision for the potential of the "off site industry" realize that they need to become more than just component manufacturers and instead act as off site system/solution providers and resource themselves accordingly, the industry will fail to reach its potential, despite the the labor shortage, which is forcing builders to look for new solutions.

True off site companies are solution focused businesses that happen to manufacture components as an output of an integrated system that's purpose is to facilitate the fast track construction of a building utilizing both labor and material efficiency. Off site companies may manufacture components but they are not component manufacturers!

 

*Gerard McCaughey is Chief Executive of Entekra Inc, a firm specializing in design, engineering and manufacturing of Fully Integrated Off Site Solutions™ (FIOSS™) for homebuilding industry. Mr. McCaughey previously co-founded Century Homes, Europe’s largest offsite building manufacturing company producing over 8000 house units annually, with five plants in Ireland and UK, which he sold in 2005 to Kingspan Group Plc. He is regarded in Europe as being one of the leading figures in off site construction and green building movement, and was at the forefront of regulatory reform in both Ireland and Britain. He has acted as an off site construction consultant in Eastern Europe, United States and South Africa and has spoken and written about green and offsite construction in many other countries around the world and is a previous winner of Ernst and Young’s, Industry Entrepreneur of the Year Award and recognized by US Immigration Service as a "Person of Extraordinary Ability" in green and offsite construction.

 

[News URL: http://cti-timber.org/content/cti-blog-offsite-if-its-not-system-then-its-not-solution]

CTI Blog - Renewed CTI looks at 2017 with confidence

This blog post is by David Hopkins, CTI Director and Managing Director of the Timber Trade Federation (TTF)

This feature also appeared on the Structural Timber Magazine, Spring 2017 edition

 

2017 is set to be a great year for the Confederation of Timber Industries (CTI).

Thanks to an internal reorganisation and a revamped strategy, the Confederation has already started to intensify its initiatives with the aim of growing the UK Timber Industry.

As announced in an Industry Manifesto last autumn, CTI’s backbone now includes major trade associations such as the British Woodworking Federation (BWF), the Builders Merchants Federation, the Structural Timber Association (STA) and the Timber Trade Federation (TTF) offering their support and expertise.

These four organisations – in collaboration with major companies and the All Party Parliamentary Group for Timber Industries – are called upon to promote collaboration, share best practise and promote the Timber Industry case to key policy makers.

The first demonstration of the new CTI strategy was unveiled through a seminar held at the House of Commons in February 2017. Focused on the Housing White Paper issued by the Government and promoted by the Structural Timber Association (STA) and the Timber Industries APPG, the event showed how Offsite Timber Frame Construction could represent an effective and proven solution to meeting housing demand.

Industry figures show that the current production capacity is around 100,000 units per year and could easily scale up to 150,000 given the right policy frameworks.

In that occasion, Stewart Dalgarno, Director of Product Development at Stewart Milne Group clearly stated: “Housing is arguably the biggest social issue of our times, and a huge economic opportunity. The timber industry already has the capacity to help meet this demand and is already delivering around 60,000 units per year using proven offsite construction methods. This is not something for the future, we’re doing this now.”

However, to fully realise the potential of delivering over 150,000 offsite timber frame units per year by 2020 a more certain and long term commitment and policy framework is needed, along with an improved and widespread understanding of the benefits of using wood in construction.

A major step in that direction was taken just few weeks later, when the CTI joined forces with Wood for Good at Ecobuild 2017 to showcase the natural advantages of working with wood to develop sustainable communities and a low carbon economy.

For three days, experts from the Structural Timber Association, British Woodworking Federation, Timber Trade Federation, TRADA and Wood for Good were on hand to answer queries about this rapidly growing section of the construction market.

The CTI / Wood For Good joint stand also hosted two successful initiatives: the launch of the BWF Life Cycle Assessments through the new BRE LINA tool and the presentation of the new guide on the ‘Robustness of CLT Structures’ produced by the Structural Timber Association (STA).

The event clearly showed how a coordinated and targeted approach across the UK Timber Industry can help again put the sector in the spotlight.

With this in mind, the Confederation is going to undertake several tailored initiatives throughout 2017. The next project will be led by the British Woodworking Federation and focused on Apprenticeships and Skills. The seminar – to take place again at the House of Commons in Autumn 2017 – will see the participation of policy makers, Industry leaders and Sector experts.

In Winter, it will be the turn of the Timber Trade Federation (TTF), called to organise and coordinate a debate on Sustainability and Quality of Standards across the whole Timber Supply Chain.

As underlined by many commentators, the 21st Century is definitely emerging as the Timber Age and what the Timber Industries need is a mouthpiece to push this message forward.

Well, the CTI is ready to play the role.

 

[News URL: http://cti-timber.org/content/cti-blog-renewed-cti-looks-2017-confidence]

CTI Blog - CTI historic conference to be held on 26 October 2016

This blog is by Dirk Vennix, CTI Chief Executive 

I have often been asked the question over the last few months. When is the CTI’s conference taking place?  It is with great pleasure that I am now able to provide you with a date for the diary: Wednesday 26 October 2016.

And I’m also delighted to announce that Nick Boles, Minister of State in the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills, has agreed to address our inaugural industry conference at 10 am on Wednesday 26 October 2016.

Thanks to premium sponsor Nexus CIFS - well known for its credit insurance offering in the timber industry and one of the UK’s leading underwriting agencies – and co-sponsors including Danzer, Lathams and SCA the CTI is able to host this historic conference at a prestigious venue in the heart of Westminster. The location will be announced shortly.

At the major conference the construction and skills minister will talk about the Government’s views on growing the use of sustainable timber and addressing skills shortages. The CTI will also be presenting its policy reports on business growth, skills and sustainability in the timber supply chain. This will be followed by a debate about its policy recommendations with around 200 decision makers and opinion formers from the industry and Westminster.

Thanks to the strong financial support of Arbor Forest Products the CTI has been able to commission Egan Consulting to produce a Value and Growth policy report. This will include an overview of timber consumption in the UK as well as forecasts relating to markets such as sawmilling, timber trade, wood based panels, processed wood, fencing, builders’ merchants, construction, furniture, pallets, pulp and paper.

You will also recall that the CTI launched the largest employer skills questionnaire ever undertaken in the UK's Timber Industry Supply Chain in January. We got a very good response with nearly 150 senior executives and other company representatives giving us their views on a wide range of topics from schools to skills shortages. The survey results are being collated in a policy report by Sector Skills Council Proskills and kindly sponsored by International Timber.

Last but not least, Charlie Law, Managing Director at Sustainable Construction Solutions Ltd, has been working on the CTI’s Environment and Quality of Standards report which is generously sponsored by Jewson. The report looks at CTI’s key strategic objectives on sustainability: - developing the low carbon circular economy; - achieving consistent application of chain of custody standards; - improving the implementation and enforcement of EU timber regulations.

All in all, they are very important policy reports which are likely to provoke an interesting debate at our inaugural conference on 26 October 2016. So remember the date and look out for the early bird ticket invitations.

 

[News URL: http://www.cti-timber.org/content/cti-blog-cti-historic-conference-be-held-26-october-2016]

CTI Blog - CTI gets great response from Industry on skill shortages in Timber Supply Chain

This blog is by Dirk Vennix, CTI Chief Executive

You will recall the CTI launched the largest employer skills questionnaire ever undertaken in the UK's Timber Industry Supply Chain in January. We got a very good response with nearly 150 senior executives and other company representatives giving us their views on a wide range of topics related to skills, schools and further and higher education. The survey results are being collated in a skills policy report being produced by Proskills and kindly sponsored by International Timber.

Proskills have now produced the first draft to be published in the Spring of 2016. The CTI will present the findings to skills minister Nick Boles and Government officials in order to shape the political agenda on education and skills as indicated in our recently published strategic plan.

As I said in my previous blog about skills the CTI strongly believes that Education and Skills development is critical to ensure that Timber leads the way in 21st Century Construction. Members of our skills working group agreed last year that to start with we need to answer some basic questions:

  • Where are the skills shortages and skills gaps?
  • Do colleges and universities engage with timber businesses?
  • Does the industry want to take on more apprentices? What are the policy barriers?

Thanks to a very good response from businesses in the timber supply chain we have now received a wide range of answers to these questions which will help us to reflect what you need in the workplace. Initial findings indicate that several sub sectors already have plans underway to tackle skills needs but in other places the industry still needs to articulate the requirement for increased demand for timber-specific content. Equally, Government clearly still has to provide more support and make a stronger case for investment in training across the timber supply chain.

Thanks to International Timber’s generous support the CTI has been able to ask Proskills to put your views on key policy issues in a report which they will present at the CTI's inaugural industry conference, kindly sponsored by premium sponsor CIFS Nexus, in the Spring.

If CTI members are interested in a preview of the draft report’s provisional findings the CTI’s Skills and Education working group will be meeting again in London on 25 April to discuss the initial outcomes. Do get in touch with the CTI if you would like to attend.

 

[Blog URL: http://www.cti-timber.org/content/cti-blog-cti-gets-great-response-industry-skill-shortages-timber-supply-chain]

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